Cancers (Basel) 2020;12(8):E2014
Src Family Tyrosine Kinases in Intestinal Homeostasis, Regeneration and Tumorigenesis
Sirvent A, Mevizou R, Naim D, Lafitte m, Roche S
Src, originally identified as an oncogene, is a membrane-anchored tyrosine kinase and the Src family kinase (SFK) prototype. SFKs regulate the signalling induced by a wide range of cell surface receptors leading to epithelial cell growth and adhesion. In the intestine, the SFK members Src, Fyn and Yes regulate epithelial cell proliferation and migration during tissue regeneration and transformation, thus implicating conserved and specific functions. In patients with colon cancer, SFK activity is a marker of poor clinical prognosis and a potent driver of metastasis formation. These tumorigenic activities are linked to SFK capacity to promote the dissemination and tumour-initiating capacities of epithelial tumour cells. However, it is unclear how SFKs promote colon tumour formation and metastatic progression because SFK-encoding genes are unfrequently mutated in human cancer. Here, we review recent findings on SFK signalling during intestinal homeostasis, regeneration and tumorigenesis. We also describe the key nongenetic mechanisms underlying SFK tumour activities in colorectal cancer, and discuss how these mechanisms could be exploited in therapeutic strategies to target SFK signalling in metastatic colon cancer.